Grape Varieties

 

Here we will introduce different grape varieties that are generally grown in South Moravia.
 

 

 

Aurelius

 

Wine of deep yellow green colour and taste of honey. The usual flavours are apple, pear, apricot, peach, lemon zest and spices.
Aurelius (abbr. Au) is a grape variety used to make white wine. It was bred in the Czech Republic and it is a cross between Neuburger and Rheinriesling.
The name of the variety is a reminder of the Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius Probus who lifted the ban to grow wine in provinces north of the Alps. Likely, it was the Romans who started to grow wine in the Palava region.

Aurelius

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Chardonnay

 

Fresh, fruit flavoured white wine of light yellow colour. Its aroma resembles unripe apples, pineapple, melon, banana or citrus fruits.
Chardonnay (abbr. Ch) is an old grape variety used to make white wines. It is a cross between Pinot varieties and Gouais blanc.
Gouais blanc (Weiβer Heunisch) is a very old variety of Vitis vinifera, today grown only in a small amount and mostly in Eastern Europe. Throughout the Medieval times until the 19th century, it was one of the most commonly grown varieties in Europe. It bore wine of inferior quality but in great quantity. Due to this fact it became popular among peasants who paid their taxes and tithes in wine. Gouais blanc is considered one of the three ancestor varieties (together with Traminer and Pinot) of most Central European wines.

chardonnay

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Moravian Muscat

 

Wine of light yellow colour with muscatty aromas, sometimes tones of black currant. The taste is light with low acidity and fruit flavours.
Moravian Muscat (Czech name is Muškát moravský or MOPr which is a combination of the parent varieties’ names) is a grape variety used to make white wine. It was created in former Czechoslovakia, more precisely in Moravia, by crossing Muscat Ottonel and Prachttraube. It is suitable for cuvée and sparkling wine.

Muskat-moravsky-hrozen-list

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Müller-Thurgau

 

White wine of light colour with yellow green hue, muscatty and fruit aromas, fresh taste and low acidity. The usual flavours and aromas are grass, citrus fruit, muscat, gooseberry, black currant, peach and grapefruit.
Müller Thurgau is a grape variety used to make white wine. This variety was created by Hermann Müller from the Swiss Canton of Thurgau in 1882, in the Geisenheim Grape Breeding Institute in Germany, where he taught botany.
It was assumed for a long time that this variety is a cross between Rheinriesling and Silvaner, therefore the German and Slovenian synonym Rivaner was derived from the Swiss name Riesling-Silvaner. Later, it was proven that it is, in fact, a cross between Rheinriesling and Madeleine Royale. Müller-Thurgau has spread all across the world and now is one of the most successful “new breeds”.

Muller-Thurgau-hrozen-list

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Neuburger

 

Wine of a light golden yellow colour with flower and mineral aromas. You can also taste fruit and cream.
Neuburger (abbr. Ng) is a grape variety used to make white wine originating from Austria. It is said that the seed was washed on the shore of the Danube in the Wachau valley in 1860s. It was descovered by local fishermen who first planted this variety in their vineyards in Arnsdorf and found the resulting wine to be surprisingly good. Genetic analysis showed that it is a cross between Roter Veltliner and Sylvaner.

Neuburske

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Palava

 

Wine of golden yellow colour with Traminer aromas (roses and vanilla). The taste is full, long-lasting and more balanced than Traminer. The usual flavours and aromas are spices, Muscat, vanilla and tangerine.
Palava (abbr. Pa) is a grape variety used to make white wine. It was created by crossing Roter Traminer and Müller-Thurgau in Velké Pavlovice (CZ) in 1953. The name comes from the Pálava Landscape Protected Area which is nearby.

PALAVA

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Pinot blanc

 

Wine of yellow or golden yellowish green colour, light flower neutral smell. The taste is full and long-lasting, balanced and elegant. You can taste and smell pear, peach, hazelnut, almond, bread, butter, vanilla, smoke, citrus fruit or linden.
Pinot blanc is a white wine grape probably originating in Burgundy. It is a spontaneous mutation of the variety Pinot noir.
In the Czech Republic the Pinot varieties are called “Rulandské” instead of “Burgundské”. The name comes from the German name of Pinot gris – “Ruländer” which originates from the name of Johann Seger Ruland from Speyer who planted this variety in Germany. There is no reason to call the whole Pinot group this name so the Czech name is a rarity in the world. It is allowed in CZ to print “Rulandské bíle” and “Pinot blanc” on the label.
The international name of Pinot comes from the French word “pin” which means “pine”. The grape cluster of these varieties is quite small and it can resemble the shape of a pine cone.

rulanda bíla

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Pinot gris

 

Wine of golden yellow colour (sometimes with a pink hue), neutral fruit aromas, full taste with higher level of glycerol and alcohol. You can taste and smell orange, grapefruit, apricot, nuts and honey, smoke and butter, bread, apple, pear, mango, flowers, cocoa, vanilla and beeswax.
Piot gris is an old grape variety used to make white wine. It probably originates in Burgundy and is a spontaneous mutation of Pinot noir.
The variety was spread in Germany by Johann Seger Ruland from Speyer who found a few bushes in an untended garden in Palatinate. Due to this fact, the Gernam synonym for Pinot gris is Ruländer. In the Czech Republic it is called “Rulandské šedé” which is inaccurate since this variety had been grown in Czech lands long before Johann Seger Ruland was born. It is allowed in CZ to print both “Rulandské šedé” and “Pinot gris” on the label.

Rulandské šedé

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Cabernet Moravia

 

Wine of dark garnet colour with typical cabernet aroma of black currant that can be accompanied by the tones of cherries, tobacco and marmalade. It has nicely structured tannins which create a nice complex typical for red wines of northern wine regions when they mature in bottles.
Cabernet Moravia is a grape wine variety used to make red wine. It is a cross between Zweigeltrebe and Cabernet Franc.
Cabernet Franc is the original cabernet variety from the Bordeaux region and is closely related to the wild vine Vitis vinifera ssp. sylvestris and was probably created by its selection. It is one of two parents of Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot and Carménère.
Cabernet Moravia is the first cabernet variety created in the Czech Republic (in South Moravia). The first harvest was in 1979 and it spread quite quickly across the whole region.

Cabernet-moravia

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Cabernet Sauvignon

 

Wine of dark garnet colour, sometimes with blue reflections. The typical aromas are accompanied by cherry, blackberry, tobacco, cedar or marmalade. The wine is robust with long lasting taste, and smooth when mature in a bottle. Young wine usually has aggressive tannins.
Cabernet Sauvignon is a traditional blue grape variety used to make red wine. It is one of the four worldwide favourite wines (together with Syrah, Pinot Noir and Merlot).
This traditional French variety originates in the region around Bordeaux. It was assumed for a long time that it could have been planted in France in the times of Roman colonization and that it was created by crossing with some ancient variety. There was also a theory that it originated in the Spanish region Rioja.
The variety has been grown in bigger amounts around Bordeaux since the end of the 18th century. In 1997, a study was published in which a DNA analysis proved that Cabernet Sauvignon is a cross between Cabernet Franc and Sauvignon blanc.
The name Cabernet Sauvignon has been used since the 19th century. The word “cabernet” is derived from the Latin word “caput” which means, in this context, “vine variety giving black grapes”. The word “sauvignon” refers to the fact that it was considered a wild variety (“sauvage” means “wild” in French). The name Cabernet Sauvignon is, in fact, an unintentional compound of the two parent varieties – Cabernet Franc a Sauvignon blanc.

cabernet-saugvignon

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Dornfelder

 

Wine of dark garnet colour and fine aroma. In the smell you can find fruit tones, e.g. forest fruit, cranberries or nuts.
Dornfelder is a blue grape variety used to make red wine. It was created in Germany, Weinsberg, by crossing Helfensteiner and Heroldrebe in 1955.
In Germany, it has been mostly grown in the regions of Rheinhessen and Palatinate. It is grown in other parts of Europe, e.g. England, the Netherlands, Luxembourg and the Czech Republic, in South Moravia.
The variety is named after Immanuel Dornfeld (1796-1869), the name of the founder of the first viticultural school in Germany.

Dornfelder-hrozen

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Blaufränkisch/Limberger

 

Wine of dark ruby colour. Young wine has grassy aroma which transform into blackberry while maturing. The taste is strong, with higher acidity, spicy and fruity. Mature wines are more velvety and smooth. In the taste and aroma you can find blackberries, plums, cherries and cinnamon.
Blaufränkisch (Czech name is Frankovka) is a blue grape variety used to make red wines. It is a spontaneous cross of Gouais blanc (Heunisch) and so far unknown variety.
It is a very old variety which is considered to originate in Germany or Lower Austria. According to some sources this is the region from which it spread in the 18th century. When the synonyms Lemberger or Limberger are taken into account, it could come from the names of three different towns. One is a German town of Lemberg which lies close to the border with France. Second is a town of the same name in Slovenia and the last is Maissau, a town in Lower Austria which was, in the past, called Limberg.
The Czech synonym probably comes from the Austrian name Blaufränkisch. It is most likely derived from Franconia where the variety was widely spread.

Frankovka-hrozen

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Welschriesling

 

It is a wine of greenish yellow colour, containing a wide range of aromas, from wine, flowers with a hint of linden, bitter almonds or apples and honey tones. The taste is full and balanced with fresh acidity. In the taste and aroma you can find grapefruit, black currant, gooseberry, raisins and sweet lemon.
Welschriesling (Czech name Ryzlink vlašský) is an old green grape variety used to make white wine. It is not related to Rhine Riesling. It is assumed that it was created in France from where it spread to Heidelberg, Rhineland and later to Lower Austria and Hungary. There are other opinions about the original region that claim that the variety was created in Italy.
In the Czech Republic it is grown in South Moravia, where it is the third most grown and second oldest variety.
The Czech name Ryzlink vlašský is taken from the German synonym Welschriesling which means “Romanic” Riesling. In most other languages the name translates to “Italian” Riesling.

Ryzlink-Vlassky

 

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Rhine Riesling

 

Wine of light greenish yellow colour, with more mature wine comes a golden hue. It has a wide range of fruity aromas, but also spicy, smoky, flower, typical smell is linden, but can also be Muscat, peach or meadow flowers. Typical tastes and aromas are green and yellow apple, orange, lemon zest, quince, apricot or pineapple, but also honey, marzipan, almond, raisins or minerals.
Rhine Riesling (Czech name is Ryzlink rýnský) is an old grape variety used to make white wine. It comes from a valley around the upper reaches of the Rhine. According to the results of a DNA analysis there are three ancestors – Gouais Blanc (Heunisch), Gewürztraminer and some other unknown variety from the Rhine valley.
Cultivation of this variety in Rhineland is documented as early as 1435 from where it spread to all wine regions of Germany. Some sources say that it was Charles IV who brought it to the Czech lands. But it was most likely brought here by the Order of St. Benedict in the 17th century.

Ryzlink_rýnský

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Merlot

 

Wine of ruby or dark garnet colour with soft aromas of overripe black currant. It has low acidity, and the taste is smooth, velvet and long-lasting. In the smell and taste you can find cherries, plums, blackberries, figs, and roses. There can also be tobacco tones, truffles, coffee, chocolate and sometimes fruit cake.
Merlot is a traditional and very popular blue grape variety used to make red wine. It probably comes from the French region of Bordeaux where it was created by spontaneous crossing of Magdeleine noire des Charentes and Cabernet Franc.
This was first mentioned in writing in Bordeaux in the 14th century. Back then it was called Crabatut noir and it was considered a supplementary variety.
The exact origin of this variety had been unknown for a long time before a DNA analysis in 2009 proved the parent varieties.
The name of the variety comes from the French word “merle” which means “a blackbird”. It likes to peck off the smaller grapes on clusters of this variety because they get dark earlier than other blue varieties of Bordeaux region.

Merlot

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Blauer Portugieser

 

Wine of light ruby colour and light, sometimes flower aromas. The taste is light with less tannins, balanced, velvet and pleasant. In the taste and smell you can find flowers, fresh hay and cherries.
Blauer Portugieser (Czech name is Modrý Portugal) is an old blue grape variety used to make red wine. Its origin is unknown.
It is said that, in 1772, the count Johann von Fries called local winemakers to his castle in Bad Vöslau, gave them bundles of this variety which he was given in Port. The variety had such merits that it spread throughout the area in few years and it was grown on two thirds of the vineyard. In the region it was called “Vöslauer” after the town.
The name of this variety points towards origins in Portugal. But the Portugese ampelographers don’t recognize any relations to any of the Portugese varieties, and it hasn’t been grown there. On the other hand it is widely spread in the regions around Danube. Therefore it is highly probably that it originates somewhere in these regions, most likely in Austria.

Modry Portugal

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Sauvignon

 

Wine of light greenish yellow colour, strong spice aroma with higher acidity. In the smell and taste you can find black currant, gooseberry, nettle, kiwi and lemon, grapefruit, peach, nectarine, melon, peach, orange, pineapple, honey, marzipan, tropical fruit, mango, locust and orange blossom, iris and fennel.
Sauvignon blanc is an old green grape variety used to make white wine. It probably originates in Bordeaux or in the Loire Valley. It was probably created by spontaneous crossing between Chenin blanc and Savagnin.
It is said that when the French king Henry IV of Navarre was a baby, his grandfather would calm him down by spreading ground garlic on his lips and soak it with Sauvignon. Anyway, later in his life he became a big lover of this variety.
The name “Sauvignon” refers to the assumption that this variety was created by selection from wild wine (“sauvage” means “wild” in French).

Sauvignon

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Silvaner

 

Wine of yellowish green colour and zesty aroma, with you younger wines it can be grassy with gooseberry tones. Taste is full, extractive, lightly spicy. Other aromas are locust blossom, minerals and vegetal tones.
Silvaner (Czech name is Sylvánské zelené) is an old grape variety used to make white wine. It was created by spontaneous crossing of Austrian white (Österreichisch Weiss) and Gewürtztraminer. It belonged to the most widespread varieties in Central Europe until the 1920s.
Gaius Plinius Secundus  talked about a variety of similar characteristics as long ago as the 1st century A.D. Silvaner probably originates in the area near Krems, Lower Austria, around the Danube.
The name of the variety comes from Latin and is either derived from “silva”, meaning “forest”, or “saevum”, meaning “wild”. It was assumed, in the past, that Silvaner was cultivated from the original wild “forest” variety Vitis vinifera ssp. sylvestris. An interesting fact is that Sauvignon is derived from the French word “sauvage”, also meaning “wild”. In some publications, it is speculated that the name is derived from the name of Roman god of nature and forests (Silvanus).

sylvanske zelene

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Neronet

 

Wine of dark red colour with a blue spark. The aromas are soft and neutral, the taste is full, there is a lower content of acids and stronger tannins. Its character resembles those of wines from southern regions. In the taste and smell you can find black currant, canned cherries, cabernet tones, blueberries or blackberries.
Neronet is a blue grape variety used to make red wine. It was created in former Czechoslovakia (in Lednice) in 1965 by crossing St. Laurent, Blauer Portugieser and Alibernet.
The name of the variety is a compound of two words. The fist is “nero”, which means “black” in Italian. This can be a reference to its dark colour. The second part can be a reminder that it is a wine of a cabernet type and one of its parents is Alibernet.

Neronet

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Pinot noir

 

Wine of light ruby or brick red colour. The aromas are fruity, bitter and spicy. The taste is full, there is a low content of acids, low tannins and smoothness. In the smell and taste you can find blackberries, raspberries, strawberries, plums, bananas, cherries, cranberries, quince, heather, peony, jasmine, mint, violets, dates, figs, dried plums, powidl, strawberry jam, mulberry, bitter almonds, bitter chocolate, cocoa, coffee, cloves and nuts.
Pinot noir (Rulandské modré) is an ancient blue grape variety used to make red wine. A DNA analysis shows that it is a direct relative of the wild vines. The original region of this variety is probably Burgundy and it was likely grown here by the Romans.
It was brought to Czech lands from France by Charles IV. It is said that was a gift to wine makers in Mělník (Central Bohemia) who helped fighting robbers around the Labe. In one of their vineyards, there is a stone with a writing: Chambertin 1348 – the year and place of origin of the wine.
In the Czech Republic the Pinot varieties are called “Rulandské” instead of “Burgundské”. The name comes from the German name of Pinot gris – “Ruländer” which originates from the name of Johann Seger Ruland from Speyer who planted this variety in Germany. There is no reason to call the whole Pinot group this name so the Czech name is a rarity in the world. It is allowed in CZ to print “Rulandské modré” and “Pinot noir” on the label.
The international name of Pinot comes from the French word “pin” which means “pine”. The grape cluster of these varieties is quite small and it can resemble the shape of a pine cone.

Rulandske modre

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Gewürztraminer

 

Wine of intensive yellowish golden colour, sometimes with pink reflexes. Its aroma and taste are distinctive and easily recognizable. You can find there tea rose, spices, honey, raisins, tropical fruit, canned fruit, apricots, violet, peony, ginger, cinnamon, liquorice, caramel, litchi, mango, passionflower, grapefruit, elderflower and sometimes muscaty tones.
Gewürztraminer (Tramín červený) is an old red grape variety used to make white wine. It is one of the oldest varieties and it is a parent of many classical European varieties and is a popular parent for creating new crosses. Its origins are unclear as they got lost somewhere in history.
Present-day name „Traminer“ comes from the name of the village Tramin/Termeno in the Italian region of Südtirol/Trentino-Alto Adige. It is not the original home of this variety. However, in literature from the 13th to 16th century, it is often talked about great wines of Tramin so German winemakers used it to their advantage and started calling the variety that was grown the most around the Rhine “Traminer”, to make it more popular.

Tramin červený

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Grüner Veltliner

 

Wine of light green or greenish yellow colour, with fresh, intensive aromas. Its taste is fruity and has higher but pleasant acidity. In the taste and smell, you can find linden, almonds, muscaty tones, pepper, asparagus, green peas, and exotic fruit in mature wines.
Grüner Veltliner (Veltlínské zelené) is an old green grape variety used to make white wine. It is an autochthonous variety from Lower Austria, probably originating in the town Retz. It was created by spontaneous crossing of Savagnin/Traminer and St. Georgen.
Today’s name is relatively young. It was first used in 1874. It comes from a false assumption that this variety is a mutation of Roter Veltliner and was used to make a distinction between another mutation – Veltliner braun. The name itself is derived from the valley Valtellina in Lombardy in Northern Italy.

Veltlínské zelené

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André

 

Wine of dark garnet colour and fruit aromas of stone fruit, in mature wines even tones of blueberries or powidl. The taste is full, balanced, when mature, it is smooth with more tannins and higher acidity. In the taste and smell you can find blackberries, blueberries and powidl.
André is a blue grape variety used to make red wine. It was created in the Czech Republic in 1960, it is a cross between Blaufränkisch and St. Laurent.
As suggested by its cultivators, it was named after a French educator and scientist Christian Carl André who worked in Brno as a headmaster of Evangelical Lutheran school, secretary of then Moravian-Silesian society for improving tillage, natural sciences and national history in 1798. He also was a co-founder of the Moravian national museum and a founder of the first Agricultural Society.

André

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